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Please review any of the following studies and backup documentation to learn more about the science of Steam and Shield, BacShield® and other Chitosan studies covering other sciences.

Chitosan technology is over 100-years old.  During the past 50 years, Chitosan research has exploded with amazing test results, from persistent microbe destruction on surfaces to elimination the body.

Chitosan Uses

1. 7 Amazing Benefits of Chitosan

2. What is Chitosan used for?

3. Application of Chitosan and its Derivatives in Nanocarrier Based Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems

4. Applications of Chitosan in Pulmonary Drug Delivery


Steam & Shield

1. Martin, T.P., et al., "Initiated chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings." Biomaterials 28 (2007) 909-915. cited by examiner.

2. Torres-Giner, S., et al., "Development of Active Antimicrobial Fiber Based Chitosan Polysaccharide Nanostructures using Electrospinning". Eng. Life. Sci. 2008, 8, No. 3, 303-314. cited by examiner.

3. Goy, Rejane C, et al., "A Review of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan". Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia, vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 241-247, 2009. cited by examiner.

4. Zhao, Li-Ming, et al., "Preparation and Application of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Nanofibers". Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering. vol. 28, No. 03, pp. 353-362, Jul.-Sep. 2011. cited by examiner.

5. Kubacka, Anna, et al., "Understanding the antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2-based nanocomposite films in a pathogenic bacterium". Scientific Reports 4:4134, Feb. 19, 2014, pp. 1-9. cited by examiner.

6. Duan, J., et al., "Storability of Antimicrobial Chitosan-Lysozyme Composite Coating and Film-Forming Solutions." Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, Nr.6, 2008, M321-M329. cited by examiner.

7. Tripathi, Shipra, et al., "Chitosan based antimicrobial films for food packaging applications". e-Polymers 2008, No. 093, pp. 1-7. cited by examiner.

8. Coma, Veronique, "Polysaccharide-based Biomaterials with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties". Polimeros, vol. 23, N. 3, pp. 287-297, 2013. cited by examiner.

9. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Laura, et al., "Antimicrobial activity of polysaccharide films containing essential oils". Food Control 22 (2011) 1302-1310. cited by examiner.

10. Coma, V, et al., "Edible Antimicrobial Films Based on Chitosan Matrix". Food Microbiology and Safety, pp. 1-8. No other reference information available. cited by examiner.



1. The relationship between antibacterial activity of chitosan and surface characteristics of cell wall  (Chung YC et al / Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004 Jul; 25 (7): 932-936)

  1. The death of bacteria is directly proportionate to the chitosan which adheres ("adsorbs") onto the surface.
  2. As the chitosan adsorbs on the surface, the surface becomes more hydrophilic (water-loving), which is associated with the death of the bacteria.
  3. Gram-negative bacteria are more vulnerable to the effect than gram-positive.
  4. As the pH drops to pH 5.5, cationic charge of the chitosan reaches its maximum and adsorption is accelerated.

Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects (Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 May 1. Published in final edited form as: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Jul; 9(7): 857–879. doi: 1586/eri.11.59)

  1. Chitosan is non-allergenic, non-toxic

2. A more extensive explanation of the chemical properties and effects of Chitosan is provided in Goy, Rejane C., de Britto, Douglas, and Assis, Odilio B.G. (2009) “A review of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan”, Polímeros 19(3).

3. A summary of research on the relationship between the physicochemical properties of Chitin and Chitosan and their behaviors is presented in Aranaz et al. (2009) “Functional Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan“, Current Chemical Biology 2009(3).

Other Studies of Chitosan used as an anti-viral:

1. Chitosan against Flu H7N9 2016- Use of Chitosan in mice by nasal spray.  Induced broad immune responses against lethal challenges of H7N9 influenza virus

2. Wash cycle test on Chitosan on fabric- 50 wash cycles on cloth treated with Chitosan. Anti-microbial activity of chitosan against aureus and E. coli and after treatment was excellent as well with 100% and 99.6% reduction of bacteria, respectively. After 50 laundering cycles, the activity against S. aureus remained high and only slightly decreased to 92%.

3. Chitosan as an anti-viral medicine 3-20. Anti-viral treatment with adenovirus in NIH-3T3 mice cells.   It is proposed that chitosan could be a broad-based antiviral medication

4. HTCC/ Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.webarchive. Chitosan as a potent inhibitor of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry.  HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

5. US20150164938A1 patent- THE USE OF CHITOSAN POLYMER IN THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFECTIONS CAUSED BY CORONAVIRUSES  the use of chitosan polymers in the treatment of infections caused by coronaviruses by inhibiting their replication

  1. Chitosan kills Escherichia coli through damage to be of cell membrane mechanism https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S014486170900366X

6. Chitosan-Based Intranasal Vaccine against Escherichia coli O157:H7 http://applications.emro.who.int/imemrf/Iran_Biomed_J/Iran_Biomed_J_2016_20_2_97_108.pdf

7. Antibiofilm and antibacterial effects of specific chitosan molecules on Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitis

8. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effect of Low Viscosity Chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis